Brief 16: Spillover Effects of Observers in Ghana

  • Policymakers should focus on how best to prevent misconduct during the often overlooked voter registration stage.
  • Even a small number of domestic observers can have a significant effect on reducing fraud; therefore, election observation organizations should consider even a small allocation of observers to be a worthwhile investment.
  • Domestic observers should be densely concentrated near the areas where high levels of fraud are expected.
  • Policymakers should carefully consider whether their interventions could have spillover effects, and if so, how to evaluate the impact of their programs taking these into account.
  • More scholarship is necessary in using randomized field experiments to study how democracy works in practice