The treatment consisted of citizen exposure to information about the use of FISM funding for public goods that was collected by the audit agency in 2007. The audits revealed that mayors did not spend all the money they received from FISM, that they did not spend all of the money in poor areas, and that in average 30% of funds were spent in a corrupt manner. The researchers show that only 10% of voters had been aware of the existence of FISM prior to their intervention.
In each of the nine train stations Enos studied, he chose two rush hour trains that were close in time and randomly assigned one to treatment and one to control. Prior to the intervention, Enos distributed surveys asking commuters a variety of questions, including three specifically about immigration and nationhood: 1) Should immigration be increased, decreased or kept the same? 2) Should illegal immigrants without criminal records be allowed to stay in the United States? and 3) should English be declared the national language of the United States?
Paluck and Shepherd first conducted a survey of the total student population at a small public high school in Connecticut (N=291) that measured the student social network via student nominations. They also used questions to measure perceptions of prescriptive norms regarding harassment at the school, of behavior that can deescalate harassment, and of students’ rationale for harassment. They administered the survey twice more (three times total) after their intervention.
To figure out the effects of different voting systems, the research team randomly 1 assigned both polling place a