The perspective-taking exercise was conducted in an online survey of a nationally representative sample of 5,400 American adults. The survey was fielded in the two weeks leading up to the 2016 presidential election, in which policies related to immigrants and refugees were a major point of contention. In addition to the perspective-taking condition, the survey experiment included two other randomly assigned treatment conditions: an information-only group and a pure control group.
The authors conducted a survey experiment on 1,257 Turkish citizens who resided in southeastern and central Turkey in June 2014. The survey experiment presented different messages about the possible effects of hosting refugees—increased economic burden, disruption of ethnic balance, and ties with rebels, as well as a positive message of saving innocent women and children. These messages were tailored to resemble elite cues as they appear in the media.