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Brief 30: Electoral Rules in Afghanistan

The sample for the study was composed of 250 villages–each with an average population of roughly 1,000 people–selected from ten districts spanning northern, northeastern, eastern, central, and western Afghanistan (southern areas were excluded due to security concerns). Half of the villages was randomly assigned to hold district elections and the other half to hold at-large elections. Under district elections, the village was split into geographically-defined districts and each villager could only vote for a single candidate residing in the same district.

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Brief 58: Does Bottom-Up Accountability Work? Evidence from Uganda

This study took place in 16 districts across four regions of Uganda. The sample included 376 health centers, which encompasses nearly every functioning government-run health center in the study districts. In coordination with Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA), researchers conducted a randomized evaluation to measure the impact of the full ACT Health program and individual components of the program on utilization rates, treatment quality, patient satisfaction, and health outcomes, including child mortality.

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Brief 57: How Media Influence Social Norms: Evidence from Mexico

The research design combined two sources of variation to create four treatment groups in a factorial design (Table 1). First, the soap opera was broadcast via a community loudspeaker only reaching a portion of the community due to topographical conditions (the natural experiment component). Households within the loudspeaker’s reach were also randomly invited by the regional NGO to listen to the soap opera program at a community meeting, with the remaining households able to hear the broadcast at their homes regardless.

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Brief 56: Reporting Corruption in Nigeria: Testing the Effects of Norms & Nudges

The study was conducted in four states of the Niger Delta (Akwa Ibom, Bayela, Delta, and Rivers). Within those states, sample communities were selected based on the GPS coordinates of mobile phone towers. The study was conducted in 106 communities selected such that they were sufficiently separated to avoid spillovers. Two surveys (baseline and endline) were conducted in each community with approximately 15 randomly-selected individuals.

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Brief 55: Candidate Participation in Electoral Debates--An Experimental Encouragement Design in Liberia

The partner NGO organized 129 standardized debates to elicit the policy promises of candidates for the House. The platforms were then rebroadcast by community radio stations. The debates were held across all 73 districts from mid-August to mid-September prior to the October 2017 elections for the House of Representatives. In order to induce variation in debate participation, the authors randomly varied the intensity of the invitations to all candidates in each district.

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Brief 54: Evidence from Mexico: The Effect of Incumbent Malfeasance Revelations

The study was conducted in 26 municipalities in the states of Guanajuato, México, San Luis Potosí, and Querétaro. The municipalities and states were chosen based on holding municipal elections in 2015, municipalities receiving ASF audit results in 2015, security and logistical considerations, and ensuring that incumbents from different parties were proportionately represented within these states.

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Brief 53: Fostering Inclusionary Behavior towards Syrian Refugees through Perspective-Taking: Evidence from the United States

The perspective-taking exercise was conducted in an online survey of a nationally representative sample of 5,400 American adults. The survey was fielded in the two weeks leading up to the 2016 presidential election, in which policies related to immigrants and refugees were a major point of contention. In addition to the perspective-taking condition, the survey experiment included two other randomly assigned treatment conditions: an information-only group and a pure control group.

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Brief 52: Election Observers and Perceptions of Electoral Credibility: Evidence from Tunisia

The researchers embedded their experiments in large-scale, nationally representative surveys and randomly varied the information received by the respondents regarding the assessments and the identity of the election observers.  Since Tunisia had election observers from a wide range of organizations, the researchers were able to realistically vary the identity of the election observer across the treatment groups by changing information regarding their organizational affiliation.

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